National Radio Survey

Questions And Answers



What does the abbreviation KRT mean?

KRT is short for Kansallinen Radiotutkimus. That is Finnish and means the National Radio Survey.

When is radio listening measured?

Radio listening is measured throughout the year. The study waves last seven days and there are approximately 52 waves per year.

Is the information about the research periods classified?

No, not any more.

How accurately is the listening measured?

24 hours a day on 15 minute intervals.

Who needs this information and why?

The subscribers are Yleisradio Oy (the public broadcasting company), RadioMedia and Finnish Association of Marketing Communication Agencies (MTL). In addition to them, advertisers need this data. The get information from MTL and the radio stations.

The data is used to plan programming and to sell air time.

How can you join the survey?

The sample is randomly selected from the People Registry. Good luck will get you included.

Is the sample representative of the Finnish population?

People are recruited so that the sample of returned diaries is representative by age, sex and location. Each respondent is also weighted by the these variables.

Do you need to listen to the radio to be included in the sample?


Do you recruit the whole household?

Only individual people are recruited, not the whole household. In some other countries, the whole household is recruited.

If a person has only a mobile phone (no landline) can she/he still get recruited?

Recruiting is conducted also by mobile phone.

What will I be asked if the recruiter calls me?

Your agreement — twice — and some basic demographics like age, profession, education, household size etc. Nothing classified or delicate.

What do you need to enter to the diary?

You only need to draw a line that marks the station, time and location and few extra questions.

Will radio channels get to know my name?

Absolutely not. And we only need to know it until we send you the diary.

Will I get money out of participating?

You are automatically included in our prize drawings.

Do you also report listening in cars or summer cottages?

Yes. Radio is consumed everywhere and it must be measured everywhere.

Does my listening need to be intensive to enter it to the diary?

No. Radio sound in the background is enough.

Why is there no electronic meter to measure radio like there is in TV research?

First of all, the first electronic media meter was a meter attached to a radio receiver. The meter was used in the USA in the 1940's. It was developed by ACNielsen. When transistor radio was developed, radio was released from the living room corner and it became the first truely mobile media. Measuring only home listening was no longer adequate. It no longer to measure a radio receiver — there are several receivers in the household and many people use personal mobile receivers.

Do you report ratings for radio programs as you do for TV programs?

Yes and no. Some figures are produced for individual program there is no average listener rating similar to to the TV measurement.

What do channel share and all other reported figures mean?

Share (%)
Radio channel's share of all listening time. Total radio listening equals 100 %.
Reach (%) / (estimate, 1000's)
The number of people who have listened to the channel for at least 15 minutes. Reported as thousands or as percentages. Reaches cannot be summed because people listen to several channels.
Minutes Per Head
Average time spent listening to the station in the target group. The number is proportional to the whole population, not to the listeners. Therefore, also non-listeners are included.
Minutes Per Listener
Averaget time spent listening to the station in the target group within the people who have listened to the station. Non-listeners are excluded.
Profile (%)
The demographic proportion of the channel's listeners according to eg. sex, age or living place.

How do you report the result to the radio channels?

The results are reported 1–12 times a year using an online reporting system.

Are the results public?

Results are public among the subscribers. Finnpanel also publishes basic results monthly on its website.

What is KRT Online?

KRT Online is the web based reporting system used by the subscribers.

There are both regional and national reports and altogether hundreds of reports are produced yearly.

What is Telmar?

Telmar is a London based software house. They develop software to analyze media research data.

But I read on Internet that...

Study waves are classified — not any more. Since January 2012 every day of the year are measured.

Nobody receives results beforehand no matter what they write on discussioin forums in the Internet. Once it was claimed that results are already available when even the data collection was not completed.

Did you know that...

In 2014, Finns listened to the radio 3 hours and 1 minutes daily on average.

78 per cent of the Finns listen to the radio every day. Weekly reach of radio is 95 per cent of the 9+ population.

YLE was established in 1926.

The first Finnish private commercial radio station Radio Lakeus started in April 1985.


FM technology — like many other things — was originally developed for military use.